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Posts Tagged ‘Niger

Nut shell

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mountain.gif nigerphase1.gif

Big water and grass land in Africa
Biosolid application methods and design factors

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Plant respiration= evaporation cooling

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Plant respiration = evaporation cooling.

Evaporation cooling = moist southern air moving north.

morerain

Water flows down hill… in ancient river beds under the sand.

Nut shell

SafsafOasis_SAR_comparison

Big Water and Grass

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Data from the Soil Conservation Research project at McCredie during the summer drought of 1953 showed the corn crop exhausting the soil moisture to a depth of 3.5 feet under the fertilized soils. The equivalent of only 1.04 inches of water was left in that entire depth. Where the soil was not fertilized, the crop dried out the soil to a lesser depth. It left the equivalent of 4.5 inches of water in the upper 3.5 feet.
On the unfertilized corn, which took 14 inches of water from the soil, the yield was only 18 bushels per acre. It required 26,000 gallons of water to make a bushel of corn. On the fertilized soil with a
yield of 79 bushels, only 5,600 gallons of water per bushel were required.

The drought was a case of plant hunger rather than thirst.

Or simply, 4 times the crop yeild with one fifth the amount of water on fertile soil.

Biosolids and grass seed: more crop less water.

The Future Looks Like Bio Solids

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India scoops uranium contract.

“In return for the permit, Taurian Resources promised the Government of Niger that the company will green one million hectares of land”

Dung + grass = everything else for nomads. That includes fixing ground and air ( dust ) uranium.

Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil.[1] A member of the genus Bacillus, B. subtilis has the ability to form a tough, protective endospore, allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Unlike several other well-known species, B. subtilis has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe, though recent research has demonstrated that this is not strictly correct.[2]
It has also been called Bacillus globigii, Hay bacillus or Grass bacillus.

These results suggest that the bacteria have a higher affinity for U than the kaolinite clay mineral under the experimental conditions tested, and that they can immobilize significant amounts of uranium.”

Kaolinite has a high affinity for U and Grass Bacillus affinity is even higher.

Soil bacteria require real ( dung ) fertilizers and soil; the fakes won’t do.
U mine contamination can be managed with biosolids and grass applied at the pit and in the surrounding areas.

Biosolids.

Biosolids Methods

Big Water and Grass – Africa

Fertile soil uses much, much less water to grow much, much more crop.

Uranium and grass

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Bacillus subtilis, sometimes called Grass Bacillus is a common soil bacteria.

Abstract

We assessed the accumulation of uranium (VI) by a bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, suspended in a slurry of kaolinite clay, to elucidate the role of microbes on the mobility of U(VI). Various mixtures of bacteria and the koalinite were exposed to solutions of 8 × 10− 6 M- and 4 × 10− 4 M-U(VI) in 0.01 M NaCl at pH 4.7. After 48 h, the mixtures were separated from the solutions by centrifugation, and treated with a 1 M CH3COOK for 24 h to determine the associations of U within the mixture. The mixture exposed to 4 × 10− 4 M U was analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with EDS. The accumulation of U by the mixture increased with an increase in the amount of B. subtilis cells present at both U concentrations. Treatment of kaolinite with CH3COOK, removed approximately 80% of the associated uranium. However, in the presence of B. subtilis the amount of U removed was much less. TEM–EDS analysis confirmed that most of the U removed from solution was associated with B. subtilis. XANES analysis of the oxidation state of uranium associated with B. subtilis, kaolinite, and with the mixture containing both revealed that it was present as U(VI). These results suggest that the bacteria have a higher affinity for U than the kaolinite clay mineral under the experimental conditions tested, and that they can immobilize significant amounts of uranium. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V5Y-4G7JXVH-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=
search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version
=1&_urlVersion =0&_userid=10&md5=6e64f8f35f45d1e83b330bf7cbd1f6b5

http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1747-5457.1994.tb00150.x

Mineralogical studies of Tertiary subsurface sediments in the Niger Delta have shown that smectite, kaolinite, <!–more–>

Big Water and Grass – Africa
Biosolid application methods and design factors

Written by aedh

February 12, 2008 at 11:42 pm