HBMT

problem solving

Biosolids = Grass = Paper

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grass to lots of paper fiber
http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/jun08/ednotebook.asp

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Biosolids = Grass = Fuel

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High grade bio fuel from grass land.

I agree completely that the most promising biofuels experiments are those using mixed native grasses. We discuss Tilman’s work and its many potential benefits on page 95-96 of Earth: The Sequel. These include:

– increased storage of carbon in the soil
– improved soil structure
– water infiltration and fertility
– radically reduced need for energy inputs (tilling, seeding, fertilizing)
– avoidance of competition with food production
– reduced pollutant run-off
– enhanced biodiversity, with all its benefits

I also agree that corn ethanol is generally a bad idea, given its poor energy/carbon balance, land and water impacts, and effects on food price and availability.

For net energy analysis, I rely on the work by Alex Farrell and Daniel Sperling of the University of California. They have developed a low-carbon fuel standard by assessing the “global warming impact” (GWI) of each fuel, measured as grams of carbon dioxide per megajoule of fuel burned. The GWI for gasoline is 92, for corn ethanol 76, for Brazilian sugarcane-based ethanol 36, and for cellulosic ethanol just 4.

Amyris’ fuels, because they’re made from sugarcane, currently offer about the same net reductions in carbon emissions as sugarcane ethanol. However, by making pure hydrocarbons and avoiding the distilling process, their energy inputs are lower. Their long term goal is to have the sugar inputs originate in cellulosic materials, like those native prairie grasses.

The Future Looks Like Bio Solids

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India scoops uranium contract.

“In return for the permit, Taurian Resources promised the Government of Niger that the company will green one million hectares of land”

Dung + grass = everything else for nomads. That includes fixing ground and air ( dust ) uranium.

Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil.[1] A member of the genus Bacillus, B. subtilis has the ability to form a tough, protective endospore, allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Unlike several other well-known species, B. subtilis has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe, though recent research has demonstrated that this is not strictly correct.[2]
It has also been called Bacillus globigii, Hay bacillus or Grass bacillus.

These results suggest that the bacteria have a higher affinity for U than the kaolinite clay mineral under the experimental conditions tested, and that they can immobilize significant amounts of uranium.”

Kaolinite has a high affinity for U and Grass Bacillus affinity is even higher.

Soil bacteria require real ( dung ) fertilizers and soil; the fakes won’t do.
U mine contamination can be managed with biosolids and grass applied at the pit and in the surrounding areas.

Biosolids.

Biosolids Methods

Big Water and Grass – Africa

Fertile soil uses much, much less water to grow much, much more crop.

Sand Dams

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Daily Motion Video on sand dams.

mountain.gif

Grass lands eliminated toxic dust storms.

Dr. Karl L. Wuensch’s brief dust storm blurb.

Big Water and Grass – Africa
Biosolid application methods and design factors

Commentary by Mr. Luc Gnacadja, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification on the occasion of The TICAD IV Breakout session D: Addressing environmental issues/ climate change
29 May 2008, Yokohama, Japan

It is an honour for me to contribute to the work of this session.
Desertification means land degradation caused by various factors including climatic variations and human activities. According to the report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, climate change is aggravating desertification, making it “the greatest environmental challenge of our times and a major impediment to meeting basic human needs in drylands.” In the Africa region, the issue is of serious concern, given that some 60 per cent of the population depends on agriculture and the land degradation processes affect about 46 per cent of the whole continent.
UNEP estimates that desertification costs some 9 billion US dollars a year in Africa alone. Further, a recent study indicated that land degradation on arable land is taking place in the most productive areas of sub-Saharan Africa, threatening food production in the long-run.
This already grim situation has been aggravated recently due to the sharp rise of food prices. It is striking that the geography of endemic poverty and hunger coincides with that of degraded lands. In fact, “today’s global challenges such as the food crisis, the consequences of biofuels on land and food commodities, the water scarcity, the forced migrations and other threats of climate change, are bringing the global community down to earth, down to the land. They are calling for sound and integrated policies including on sustainable land management”. I want to highlight that “reforming policies to combat desertification also represents one of the world’s most expedient ways to sequester more atmospheric carbon and help address the climate change issue” according to the UNU. So at the UNCCD, the UNMEA in charge of monitoring the sustainable management of land, we are calling for actions on the following:
1. Reject the notion that aridity and water scarcity are inevitable;
2. Create financial incentives for pastoralists and other dryland users to preserve and enhance the ecosystem services their land provides to all;
3. Accept the carbon sequestration as a measure for simultaneously combating desertification and climate change;
4. Foster alternative, sustainable livelihoods for dryland dwellers, including non-agricultural jobs;
5. Yield ownership and decision making to communities: empower them to take charge of land on which they depend and end the pattern of individuals chasing environmentally detrimental short-term gains;

Uranium and grass

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Bacillus subtilis, sometimes called Grass Bacillus is a common soil bacteria.

Abstract

We assessed the accumulation of uranium (VI) by a bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, suspended in a slurry of kaolinite clay, to elucidate the role of microbes on the mobility of U(VI). Various mixtures of bacteria and the koalinite were exposed to solutions of 8 × 10− 6 M- and 4 × 10− 4 M-U(VI) in 0.01 M NaCl at pH 4.7. After 48 h, the mixtures were separated from the solutions by centrifugation, and treated with a 1 M CH3COOK for 24 h to determine the associations of U within the mixture. The mixture exposed to 4 × 10− 4 M U was analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with EDS. The accumulation of U by the mixture increased with an increase in the amount of B. subtilis cells present at both U concentrations. Treatment of kaolinite with CH3COOK, removed approximately 80% of the associated uranium. However, in the presence of B. subtilis the amount of U removed was much less. TEM–EDS analysis confirmed that most of the U removed from solution was associated with B. subtilis. XANES analysis of the oxidation state of uranium associated with B. subtilis, kaolinite, and with the mixture containing both revealed that it was present as U(VI). These results suggest that the bacteria have a higher affinity for U than the kaolinite clay mineral under the experimental conditions tested, and that they can immobilize significant amounts of uranium. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V5Y-4G7JXVH-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=
search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version
=1&_urlVersion =0&_userid=10&md5=6e64f8f35f45d1e83b330bf7cbd1f6b5

http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1747-5457.1994.tb00150.x

Mineralogical studies of Tertiary subsurface sediments in the Niger Delta have shown that smectite, kaolinite, <!–more–>

Big Water and Grass – Africa
Biosolid application methods and design factors

Written by aedh

February 12, 2008 at 11:42 pm

The Drought Myth

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The Drought Myth
An Absence of Water is Not the Problem

Reprinted from Acres USA
November 2000 – Vol. 30, No. 11 – Cover Story
by William A. Albrecht, Ph.D.<!–more–>

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Soil nutrients are essential!
Biosolid application methods and design factors

Vast Sahara aquifers

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An international team worked on the verge of the Sahara to gather data on the ground and in the air, to be compared with imagery of the same region acquired by ESA satellites. The results will be used in support of an ambitious project to apply satellite remote sensing to improve monitoring and management of vast water aquifers concealed beneath the desert.

Big Water Africa